Friday, April 6, 2012

iron and steel expert from Indonesia Empu Gandring

Gandring master blacksmith is an expert Keris maker of steel royal heirloom weapons Singhasari
Gandring masters from villages Lulumbang. Lulumbang village residence Gandring professor currently estimated to be in the Lumbang, MakatiHe is a friend of Bango Samparan, adoptive father Ken Arok
Singasari history that began the establishment of the Kingdom of the year 1222 should end in 1292 or only able to survive for 70 years. But its history marred by bloodshed and killing each sibling.

Keris is a weapon MPU Gandring famous heritage in the history of the founding of the Kingdom Singasari in Malang, East Java now. Keris is famous for his condemnation that took the lives of the royal elite Singasari including the founder and the wearer, Ken Arok.
Metal technology has long been developing since early BC in the archipelago. The masters are familiar with a variety of quality metal hardness. Keris has an iron forging technology is remarkable for the size of the community in the past. Kris made by forging technique, not casted. Accompanied by folding and forging techniques are useful to search for purity iron, which at that time iron materials are composites with other natural materials. Kris was the beginning of sheet metal folded up sometimes up to a thousand times fold will likely still be worth a process that is unique, interesting and difficult. Forging technology development is able to create a forging technique Tosan Aji (Tosan = iron, Aji = value).
Elections will stone meteorites that contain titanium as a material element of the keris, is also an invention of our ancestors are awesome. Titanium is better known as the best material to make the dagger because it is lightweight yet very strong. Difficulty in making keris from titanium material is reaching melting point 1668 degrees Celsius, far from the melting point of iron, steel or nickel in the range 1455 degrees centigrade. Titanium proved to have many advantages over other types of metal elements. The element titanium is hard, strong, lightweight, heat resistant, and corrosion resistant.
The new titanium metal element found to be independent of metal elements in about the year 1940, and the hardness of metal over steel but much lighter than iron. In modern civilization, the titanium used to make spacecraft coatings nose, and the tip of the rocket and intercontinental missiles.
The present
Titanium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. She is a transition metal that is light, strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including resistance to sea water and chlorine with a white-silvery-metallic. Titanium alloy is used in a powerful and lightweight (especially with iron and aluminum) and a terbanyaknya compound, titanium dioxide , used in white pigments. Titanium priced more expensive than gold because the metal properties.
This element is found in many minerals with the main sources are rutile and ilmenite, which are widespread throughout the Earth. There are two forms of allotropes and five natural isotopes of these elements: Ti-46 to the Ti-50 Ti-48 with the most widely found in nature (73.8%). Properties of Titanium is chemically similar to zirconium and physics.

Titanium Advantage
    One of the characteristics of the most famous Titanium is as strong as steel him but only 60% of the weight of steel.
    Fatigue strength (fatigue strength) is higher than aluminum alloys.
    Resistant to high temperatures. When the service temperature exceeds 150 C is required for aluminum titanium seacara will lose its strength concrete.
    Corrosion resistant. The corrosion resistance of titanium is higher than aluminum and steel.
    With the weight-strength ratio is lower than aluminum, so the components are made of titanium requires less space than aluminum. [1]
 Titanium applications
    Military. Because of its strength, the element is used to make tools of war (tanks) and to make the spacecraft.
    Industry. Some heat transfer machine (heat exchanger) and high pressure vessels and pipes using corrosion-resistant titanium materials.
    Medicine. Dental implant materials, bone fitting, replacement of the skull, the retaining structure of the heart valves.
    Machine. Substitute material for the piston rod.
Kris is made by a blacksmith who was known to be sacred by the name of MPU Gandring, on orders Ken Arok, one of the robbers who according to a Brahmin named Lohgawe is the incarnation of Vishnu. Ken Arok was ordered to the MPU Gandring dagger with a one night only, which is an almost impossible job done by the "MPU" (a clever title for a very powerful metal) at the time. But Gandring menyanggupinya MPU with its supernatural powers. Even the power had been "transferred" into a homemade dagger was to increase the ability of the dagger and magic power.
MPU is a character in Pararaton Gandring profiled as a potent weapon maker. Keris is said to have killed a homemade Ken Arok, founder of the Kingdom Tumapel.
MPU Lulumbang Gandring from the village. He is a friend of Bango Samparan, adoptive father Ken Arok. Told in Ken Arok Pararaton that intends to seek a powerful weapon for killing her employer, the stumps Ametung akuwu Tumapel. He wants to have a keris which can kill only one puncture.

Bango Samparan Ken Arok was introduced to the MPU Gandring. To bring order Ken Arok, mpu Gandring requested a year's time. Ken Arok was impatient. He promised to come again after five months.

Lulumbang village residence Gandring MPU currently estimated to be in the Lumbang, Makati.
Curse Mpu Gandring

Five months later, Ken Arok really came to see MPU Gandring. He was angry to see the new order of semi-finished dagger. Because of anger, a dagger was captured and used for stabbing chest Gandring MPU. Although not perfect, but Kris was able to split the stone mortar belonging Gandring MPU.

MPU Gandring was killed by a homemade dagger. But he was later condemned the fatal dagger will be seven descendants of Ken Arok, including Ken Arok himself.

Ken Arok back to Tumapel to kill and seize the position Ametung stumps. Co-worker named Kebo Hijo scapegoats immediately executed using the same dagger. Ken Arok eventually killed by his own son Anusapati Ametung stumps.

Pararaton author recounts the murders followed one after another since Ametung stumps, some of which affected Gandring MPU-made dagger. Those who were killed by a keris is Gandring MPU, stumps Ametung, Kebo Hijo, Ken Arok, servants Anusapati, and last Anusapati own. While death is reported Tohjaya exposed lance.

Apparently the author Pararaton less thorough in realizing the continued condemnation Gandring MPU. Of the seven descendants of Ken Arok (including himself) turned out to be Ken Arok who died by the dagger. The Anusapati was a stepchild, while Tohjaya although the biological child, but her death from a spear pierced by Keris MPU Gandring Not Taxable. -
 Meaning shift

MPU or a master's degree is the original title of the archipelago that is now synonymous with the term for the profession keris maker. But they are not. MPU itself means the ruler or the employer or owner. The word is still found in the Indonesian language, for example,

    This book was mpu who?, Which then shifted into the book is a who?.

At the time of the Kingdom Medang, users do not have a degree mpu men. For example, the empress mpu Sindok data according to the inscription named MPU Kebi. At the time of Singhasari and Majapahit, the title used by a group mpu only respectable but not noble, and it only applies to men, for example, MPU or MPU Sora Nambi.
At the time of the Sultanate of Mataram degree shifted by a degree kyai MPU. MPU's degree and then only used by the makers of weapons only, and is thought to originate from the popularity of figure MPU Gandring Supa Pararaton or master of the manuscripts chronicle.
After completion of a dagger with a perfect form and shape and even has a supernatural ability that it is said that over the keris. MPU Gandring completed its work to make the dagger sheath. But the gloves are not yet completed, Ken Arok come pick up the dagger which he had taken one day and haris. Then Ken Arok and last test Keris Keris is ditusukkannya the MPU Gandring that supposedly he did not keep their promises (as dagger scabbard is not yet completed) the rest is even said to test the ability of the keris is the creator of the supernatural forces of kris (keris is actually stored in the to increase capacity). In dying, mpu Gandring issued Keris is a curse that will require sacrifice the lives of seven derivatives of Ken Arok. Along the way, Kris is involved in the dispute and murder of the royal elite Singhasari

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