Tuesday, April 10, 2012

amazing architectural design of Borobudur Indonesia

Borobudur was building designed by architect Gunadharma temple is expected to begin construction around 824 AD by the Raja of Mataram dynasty  named Samaratungga.
Borobudur temple is the magnificent building. Can not imagine how our ancestors built Borobudur is so hard to stand firm with hundreds of nails without nail down the earth to establish his foundation, also inconceivable how the stones that make up the Borobudur was formed and transported to the construction area on the hill. Even with the sophistication of today, it is difficult to build a temple that is able to match the Borobudur temple. Borobudur also adopted the concept of fractals. Fractals are geometric shapes that have elements similar to the overall shape. Borobudur temple itself is a giant stupa in which consists of other stupas smaller. Continue to infinity. It's amazing our ancestors already had such knowledge. Borobudur Temple building truly remarkable building Spectacular.

Building information
Locations        : near Mungkid, Magelang regency, Central Java
Country           : Indonesia
Coordinates     : 110 204 7608 ° LS ° BTKoordinat: 7608 110 204 ° LS ° East
Architect          : Gunadharma
Client               : King Syailendra
Beginning Construction : around 770 AD
Settlement of approximately   : 825 AD
Structural systems         : pyramidal arrangement of terraces of andesite blocks that interlock
Types of stupas and temples
Size             : 123 × 123 wide-meter base, now 35 meters high, the original height of 42 meters (including chattra)

The concept design
In essence, Borobudur is a stupa which when viewed from above form a pattern of the Mandala. Mandala is a complex pattern composed of squares and concentric circles representing the cosmos or universe is commonly found in streams Wajrayana-Mahayana Buddhism. Ten yard owned illustrates clearly Borobudur Mahayana school of philosophy that simultaneously describes the concept of the universe cosmology, as well as the level of the mind in Buddhism. [49] Just as a book, Borobudur describes ten levels of Bodhisattva who must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha. Sketch of the square base measuring 123 m (400 ft) on each side. The building has nine terraces, the lowest six square terraces and three circular top terrace.
In 1885, inadvertently found a hidden structure at the foot of Borobudur. [32], there are the hidden feet relief is about 160 of them are Karmawibhangga. On this panel there is a carved relief of characters that is an indication for the engraver to make a scene in relief images. [50] The foot is covered by the addition of the original stone structure that forms the court is quite broad, the real function remains a mystery. Initially suspected that the addition of these legs to prevent kelongsoran monuments. [50] Other theories propose that the addition of the foot is due to fault the original design of the foot, and not in accordance with Wastu Literature, India books on architecture and urban planning. [32] Whatever the reason for adding this leg , adding an additional foot and manufacture is done by carefully considering the grounds of religious, aesthetic, and technical.
The three levels of spiritual realm in Buddhist cosmology is:


The foot of Borobudur represents Kamadhatu, the world is still dominated by kama or "low desire". This section is mostly covered by a pile of rocks that allegedly made to strengthen the construction of the temple. At the foot of the enclosed original additional structure, there are 160 stories Karmawibhangga panel that is now hidden. A small part of an additional structure in the southeast corner is set aside so that people can still see some relief in this section. Andesite additional foot structure that covers the original legs has a volume of 13 000 cubic meters. [2]
Four steps to form a terrace in the hallway around the gallery walls are decorated with reliefs by the experts called Rupadhatu. The floor is rectangular. Rupadhatu consists of four tunnel relief to 1,300 images. Total length of 2.5 km relief with decorative carved panel 1212. Rupadhatu is a world that has been able to break free from passion, but still bound by the appearance and shape. This level represents the nature of which, between nature and the natural bottom up. In part this Rupadhatu statues of Buddha found in a niche or niches in the wall above the balcony railing or walkways. Originally there were 432 Buddhist statues in niches along the sides open out on the balcony railing. [2] On the balustrade there are subtle differences in design that symbolizes the transition from sphere to sphere Rupadhatu Kamadhatu; lowest balustrade crowned jewel, while the four levels of fencing stupika crowned top ledge (small stupas). Rectilinear part of the terraces is rich in decoration and relief carving.
In contrast to the halls of the rich will Rupadhatu relief, from the fifth to the seventh floor the walls are not berelief. This level is called Arupadhatu (which means no tangible form or not). Circular floor plan. This level represents the nature of, where people are free from all desires and bond forms and shapes, but have not reached nirvana. In the court of the circle there are 72 small stupas berterawang two are arranged in three rows that surround one of the main stupa stupa. Small bell-shaped stupa is organized into three terraces, each circle numbered 32, 24, and 16 (total 72 stupas). Two lowest terrace stupanya larger rhombic hole, one stupanya top terrace is slightly smaller and square box-shaped hole. Buddha statues are placed inside the stupa is covered with holes like a cage. From outside the statues were still dim. Intelligent design is to explain the concept of transition to a state without a form, the Buddha statue is there but invisible.
Highest levels form a perfectly illustrates the lack of a stupa represented the largest and highest. Stupa depicted plain without holes. In the largest stupa is a statue of Buddha was found incomplete or also known as Buddha is not completed, the disalahsangkakan as sculpture 'Adibuddha', but through further research there is never a statue in the main stupa, statues are not finished it was a mistake pemahatnya in ancient times. According to the belief that one statue in the manufacturing process is not undermined. Archaeological excavations carried out in the courtyard of the temple was discovered many statues like this. The main stupa is believed to be left blank means the highest wisdom, which is kasunyatan, and the absence of perfect silence where the soul of man is not bound to desire, desire, and the shape and free from the cycle of samsara.
About 55,000 cubic meters of andesite stone quarry and transported from place Penatahan to build this monument. [51] The stone is cut in a certain size, transported to the site and put together without using cement. Borobudur structure does not use cement at all, but the interlock system (another key) that is like Lego blocks that can be attached without adhesives. These stones are put together with the bulge and the right hole and fit one another, and form "dove tail" which locks the two blocks of stone. Relief was made at the site after the building structure and the wall was completed.

This monument is equipped with an adequate drainage system for areas with high rainfall. To prevent inundation and flooding, 100 showers installed in each corner, each with a unique design stage or form of the giant makara head.

Borobudur temple is very different from other designs, the temple was not built on a flat surface, but above the natural dunes. However, the construction technique is similar to other temples in Java. Borobudur has no cult spaces as other temples. That there are long passages which are narrow roads. The hallways surrounding the walled temple level by level. In general design similar to a pyramid Borobudur terraces. In the halls of the Buddhist is expected to perform ceremonial walk around the temple to the right. Borobudur may initially serve more as a stupa, or temple than the temple. [51] Stupa is intended as a shrine to the glory of Buddha. Sometimes the stupa was built as a symbol of honor and glorification of the Buddha. While the shrine or temple functions as a house of worship. Intricate design of this monument shows that this building is a building of places of worship. Form of the building without room and terrace terraced structure is believed to be the development of form punden staircase, which is a form of architecture from prehistoric native Indonesia.

According to local legend architect designer named Gunadharma Borobudur, little is known about this mysterious architect. [52] His name is more based on fairy tales and legends of Java and not based on historical inscriptions. Gunadharma legends associated with folklore about Menoreh hills resembling the body lay. Local tale is told that the body is lying Gunadharma turned into the ranks of Menoreh hills, of course the legend is just fiction and fairy tales.

Borobudur design using the tuning unit of measurement, ie the length between the end of the line of human facial hair on the forehead to the tip of the chin, or span the distance between the tip of the thumb with the tip of your little finger when the hand is fully developed. [53] Of course this unit is relative and differs slightly between individuals, but this unit remains in this monument. Research in 1977 revealed the ratio of 4:6:9 were found in this monument. Architects used this formula to determine the exact dimensions of a fractal geometry self-similar repetition in the design of Borobudur. [53] [54] ratio is also found in mathematical engineering and Pawon Mendut nearby. Archaeologists believe that the ratio of 4:6:9 and a tuning unit has the function and meaning of the calendar, astronomy, and cosmology. The same thing applies in the temples of Angkor Wat in Cambodia. [52]

Building structure can be divided into three parts: the base (foot), body, and the summit. [52] Basic measuring 123 × 123 m (403.5 × 403.5 ft) with a height of 4 m (13 feet). [51] The temple consists of five shelf terrace decreasing square on it. The first terrace back 7 m (23 ft) from the base of the terrace. Each of the next terrace down 2 m (6.6 ft), leaving a narrow passage at each level. The upper part consists of three circular terraces, each level of the shore line of effigies berterawang arranged concentrically. The main stupa there are the largest in the middle; the shoots reach a height of 35 m (110 ft) from ground level. The original height of Borobudur including chattra (umbrella stacking three) which is now released is 42 m (140 ft). Appliances located in the center of the four sides of the wind that brings visitors to the top of the monument through the arch gate guarded by a series of 32 stone lions. Wicket gate at the top of Kala carved doors and carved center vacant makara prominent on both sides. Kala-Makara motif commonly encountered in the door of the temple architecture in Java. The main door is located on the east side, as well as a starting point to read the story of relief. This ladder is connected with a straight on the hillside stairs that connects the temple with the surrounding plains.
Relief On the temple walls at every level - except on the terraces 

Arupadhatu - carved panels of bas-reliefs are made with great accuracy and fine. [55] Relief and decorative patterns Borobudur naturalist style with ideal proportions and refined aesthetic taste. These reliefs are very beautiful, even regarded as the most elegant and graceful in the world of Buddhist art. [56] Relief Borobudur Indian art discipline as well as a variety of posture has a specific meaning or aesthetic value. Reliefs noble human form as a hermit, king and noble women, angel atapun creature like a god to achieve the degree of purity, such as tare and boddhisatwa, often depicted with the body position tribhanga. These postures are called "three curves" that is curved or bent slightly at the neck, hips, and ankles with only the body weight resting on one leg, while the other leg resting dilekuk. A flexible body position implies elegance, such as a standing figure of an angel with an attitude Surasundari tribhanga body clutching long-stemmed lotus. [57]

Borobudur reliefs showing many images, such as human figures both nobles, commoners, or a hermit, a variety of plants and animals, as well as displays of traditional vernacular building form the archipelago. Borobudur is like a book like that record various aspects of ancient Javanese society. Many archaeologists researching past life in ancient Java and the archipelago centuries-8-9 and to look at and refer to the carved reliefs of Borobudur. The stage-house, barn, palaces and temples, the form of jewelry, clothing and weaponry, various plants and wildlife, as well as a means of transportation, it was noted by the researchers. One of them is a relief depicting the famous Borobudur ship. [58] bercadik typical wooden boat show this archipelago of ancient maritime culture. Ark replica of Borobudur reliefs made by Ocean Mercury is stored in the Museum, located on the north Borobudur. [59]

These reliefs read off clockwise or mapradaksina called the Old Javanese language derived from Sanskrit meaning is daksina the east. These reliefs variety of story content, among other reliefs Jataka stories. Reading of the stories are always the relief begins, and ends on the east side of the gate at every level, starting on the left and right ends of the gate. So obviously that the east is a staircase up the real (primary) and to the top of the temple, it means that the temple facing the east while the other sides of similar right.

The composition and distribution of relief story on the wall and balustrade of the temple are as follows.

 Relief Chart

Level position
position / location
Relief Story
Number of Frames
Kaki candi asli

a. Lalitawistara
Tingkat I

b. jataka/awadana

a. jataka/awadana

b. jataka/awadana
Tingkat II

Tingkat III

Tingkat IV




In sequence, the story of the temple reliefs significant briefly as follows:
In accordance with the symbolic meaning of the foot of the temple, reliefs that decorate the walls of a hidden shelf illustrates the law of karma. Karmawibhangga is a manuscript that describes the doctrine of karma, the cause and effect of good and evil deeds. Rows of relief is not a story of the series (serial), but in every picture illustrates a story that has a causal relationship. Relief is not just to give an overview of human misconduct penalties will be accompanied by acquired, but also a man of good works and merit. As a whole is a depiction of human life within the circle of birth - life - death (samsara) that never ends, and the Buddhist religion is exactly what will end the chain to get to perfection. Now only the southeastern part of the open and visible to the end. Photo Karmawibhangga complete relief can be seen in the Museum Karmawibhangga on the north side of the temple of Borobudur.

History is a depiction of the Buddha in a row of reliefs (but not a complete history) that starts from the Buddha's descent from Tushita heaven, and ends with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras. These reliefs lined the stairs on the south side, after a row exceeded the relief of 27 frames starting from the east side of the stairs. To-27 frames that describe the activity, both in heaven and in the world, as a preparation to welcome the presence of the Bodhisattvas as the last incarnation of the Buddha. The reliefs depict the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha, the son of King Suddhodana and Empress Maya of Kapilavastu Affairs. Relief amounted to 120 frames, which ended with the first sermon, which is symbolically expressed as the Turning of the Wheel of Dharma, the teachings of the Buddha is called dharma also means "law", while symbolized as a wheel of dharma.

Jataka and Awadana

Jataka are stories about the Buddha was born as Prince Siddharta before. Protrusion of contents is the subject of good works, such as self-sacrificing attitude and helpfulness that distinguishes the Bodhisattvas of any other creature. Some of the Jataka stories featuring the story of fable story involving animal characters who behave and think like humans. Indeed, the collection service or a good deed is a preparatory stage in the effort to the level of Buddhahood.

While Awadana, basically almost the same as the Jataka but the culprit is not the Bodhisattvas, but other people and the stories collected in the book Diwyawadana meaning noble godlike, and the book Awadana Awadanasataka or a hundred stories. In the reliefs of Borobudur and Awadana Jataka, treated equally, meaning that they occur in the same row without distinction. The set of the best known of the life of the Bodhisattvas is Jatakamala or strands of Jataka stories, Aryasura poet who lived in the 4th century AD.


A row of reliefs adorn the walls of the hall-2, is the story of a wandering Sudhana tirelessly in his quest for knowledge about the Supreme Truth by Sudhana. Description of the frame 460 based on the Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha, and for the lid on the story of another Bhadracari.
Buddha statue
In addition to the buddha in the form of Buddhist cosmology carved in the wall, there are many statues at Borobudur Buddha sitting cross-legged in the lotus position and displays the mudra, or symbolic hand a certain attitude. Buddha statue with a height of 1.5 meters was carved out of andesite rock materials. [2]

Buddha statue in the recesses in the Rupadhatu, governed by a row at the outer side of the balustrade. Diminishing in number at the top. Balustrade of the first row consists of 104 niches, the second line of 104 niches, recesses 88 third row, fourth row 72 niches, recesses 64 and the fifth row. Total there are 432 statues of Buddha at the Rupadhatu. [1] In the Arupadhatu (three circular courtyard), Buddha statues placed in stupas berterawang (cavities). In the court of the first round there are 32 stupas, the second court of the 24 stupas, and the third courtyard there are 16 stupas, all of them a total of 72 stupas. [1] Of the original number as many as 504 Buddha statues, over 300 have been damaged (mostly headless) and 43 missing ( since the discovery of this monument, head of the buddha is often stolen as collector's item, mostly by foreign museums). [60]

On the face of all this buddha statues look similar, but there are subtle differences among them, namely the attitude of mudras or hand positions. There are five classes of mudra: North, East, South, West, and Central, all based on five main directions of the compass according to Mahayana teachings. Fourth balustrade has four mudras: North, East, South, and West, where each of the statues buddha mudra facing the direction the show is typical. Buddha statues on the balustrade of the fifth and buddha statues inside the 72 stupas berterawang in the court of the display mudra: Middle or Center. Each mudra symbolizes the five Dhyani Buddhas, each with its own symbolic meaning. [61]

Follow the sequence Pradakshina around clockwise motion starting from the East side, then mudras buddha statues at Borobudur is:

1 comment:

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