Tuesday, May 8, 2012

Mount Tambora Sumbawa Island

Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The mountain is located in two districts, namely District Dompu (some distance south to the northwest side, and Bima (south side of the slope to the northwest, and feet to the top of the east to the north), West Nusa Tenggara Province, on 8 ° 15 'S and 118 ° east. mountain is located in both the north and south sides of the oceanic crust. Tambora was formed by the subduction zone beneath. This increases the height of Tambora up to 4300 m] which makes this mountain was once one of the highest peaks in the archipelago and drain a large magma chamber inside the mountain. It took centuries to refill the magma chamber.

This volcanic activity reached its peak in April 1815 when it erupted in a scale of seven on the Volcanic explosivity index. To the eruption's largest eruption since the eruption of Lake Taupo in the year 181. The explosion was heard up to Sumatra island (more than 2,000 km). Volcanic ash falls in Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku. The explosion was caused by the death of no fewer than 71,000 people were killed by 11000-12000 direct result of the eruption. In fact, some researchers estimate that up to 92,000 people were killed, but this figure is questionable because based on estimates that are too high. Moreover, the eruption is causing global climate change. The next year (1816) is often referred to as the Year Without a Summer because of the drastic change of weather North America and Europe because of the dust produced from the eruption of Tambora this. Due to drastic climate change is a lot of crop failure and livestock deaths in the Northern Hemisphere which led to the worst famine in the 19th century.
Tambora lies 340 km north of the Java Trench system and 180-190 km above the subduction zone. The mountain is located in both the north and south sides of the oceanic crust. This mountain has a convergence rate as much as 7.8 cm per year. Tambora is thought to have been on earth since 57 000 BP (radiocarbon dating standards). When the mountain is rising due to the underlying geological processes, a large magma chamber part is formed and simultaneously emptied magma. Mojo Island, too, formed as part of this geological process in which Saleh Bay was originally a deep basin (about 25,000 BP).
According to geological investigation, a high volcanic cone was formed before the eruption in 1815 with the same characteristics as the form of stratovolcano. Diameter holes to reach 60 km. The main hole which often emits lava flowing down regularly with a swift to steep slopes.
Since the eruption in 1815, at the very bottom there are deposits of lava and pyroclastic material. Approximately 40% of the 1-4 m layer represented by thin lava flows. Scoria is produced by the fragmentation of thin lava flows. At the top, covered by lava scoria, tuff and pyroclastic rocks flowing down. At Mount Tambora, there are 20 craters. Some craters have a name, for example Tahe (877 m), Molo (602 m), Kadiendinae, the Dome (1648 m) and Doro Api Toi. The crater is also producing basalt lava flows.
History of the eruption
By using radiocarbon dating techniques, it is stated that Mount Tambora had erupted three times before the 1815 eruption, but the magnitude of the eruption is not known. [14] Estimated date of eruption was in 3910 BC ± 200 years, 3050 BC and 740 ± 150 years. The third eruption eruptions have the same characteristics. Each eruption has a major eruption in the hole, but there are exceptions to the third eruption. In the third eruption, there are no pyroclastic flows.
In 1812, Mount Tambora became more active, with a peak of eruption occurred in April 1815. This eruption into large-scale seven Volcanic explosivity index (VEI), the number of bursts tefrit of 1.6 × 1011 cubic meters. Characteristics of eruptions, including the eruption of the main hole, pyroclastic flows, fatalities, damage to soil and land, the tsunami and the collapse of the caldera. This third eruptions affect global climate in a long time. Activity after the eruption of the Tambora new stops on the date of July 15, 1815. Further activities will then occur in August 1819 consisting of small eruptions of fire and the roar accompanied aftershocks that are considered part of the 1815 eruption.
 The eruption of the second scale is included in the VEI scale. Around 1880 ± 30 years, Tambora erupted again, but only within the caldera. These eruptions create a small lava flow and lava dome extrusion, which then form a new crater called Doro Api Toi inside the caldera.
Mount Tambora still active status. Small lava domes and lava flows still occur on the floor of the caldera in the 19th century and the 20th century. The last eruption occurred in 1967, accompanied by an earthquake and measured on a scale of 0 VEI, which means an eruption occurs without explosion.
During an archaeological excavation in 2004, a team of archaeologists found the remains buried by the eruption of culture in 1815 at a depth of 3 meters in pyroclastic deposits. [6] artifact-artifact was discovered in the same position when the eruption occurred in 1815. Because of the similar characteristics of this, the findings are often referred to as the Pompeii of the east.

 197 Years Ago Tambora story and Frankenstein On Monday, April 9, 2012, Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG) establish the status of Mount Tambora normal, the lowest level in kegunungapian status. Contrasting situation than what happened 197 years ago. At that time, on 5 April 1815, Tambora began to show symptoms of something wrong. He roared, his voice booming. Ash spewed from kawag. Data PVMBG call, paroksimal eruption occurred on April 10, 1815 and ending on April 12, 1815. Three days are horrible. The eruption continued, accompanied by thunder connect like an atomic bomb explosion, heard hundreds of kilometers. Strength of the eruption of Tambora was the largest ever recorded in history. A total of 92 000 lives taken away, spraying hot ash and pierce the atmosphere, global average temperature dropped 3 degrees Celsius. Even in the northern hemisphere, there was no summer in the following year, 1816, 'the year without summer'. Snow storm hit New England in July of that year, the crops failed. Europe also experienced conditions as bad.
 Media The Times published a letter from a dealer in the Netherlands Indies. "We just had the most incredible eruption that may never happen anywhere on Earth," he writes, as the site loaded science, Newscientist. Mount Tambora erupted on the island of Sumbawa. The explosion heard up to 850 kilometers. A number of ship captain who sailed around Sumbawa describe severe conditions at the time. "They see the ocean as far as the eye can see filled with trees, rocks that float, which prevents the ship," wrote trader itu.Dua days after the massive eruption, Sumbawa darkness. "Rice crop completely destroyed, nothing left. People in large numbers were killed instantly, others dying every day."
Elsewhere in the world, Tambora also claimed thousands of lives. Not because of eruption, but rather a result of epidemic typhus and hunger prevalent in the European region. The inevitable chaos, houses and shops were burned and looted. Tambora even change the map of history, June 18, 1815, Tambora caused by bad weather which made Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo lost the war. Terpedih day in the glorious history of the French Emperor.

However, no one expected, even scientists, the Sun will disappear in 1816. People think, doom is imminent. Uncontrollable panic. "A girl woke her aunt and shouting, the world will end soon. The aunt was surprised, even koma.Sementara in Ghent, the cavalry that came when the storm blew their trumpets, unexpectedly, two-thirds of the population took to the streets, on his knees. They thought have heard the trumpets of doom signs, "the illustrated London Chronicle.
In Frankenstein inspired seputaran that time, a female 18-year-old Mary Shelley was on holiday in the Lake Geneva region, Switzerland. Together Bysshe Shelley, her husband in the future, they are stuck at home rain Lord Bryon. It was dark at that time. To divert attention from bad weather, the hosts held a competition to write horror stories. Shelley produced a spectacular famous novel of all time, "Frankenstein". Time, as the site loaded science, Discovery.com, they also had time to experiment, using an electric gelimbang on dead animals evoke the idea behind a lifeless corpse. The group also took turns reading the story of German horror. Meanwhile, Lord Bryon produce a poem called "Darkness". "The light went out," Bryon writes in a poem that he wrote in 1986. In Indonesia, long-forgotten history of Tambora. Few are aware, outbreaks have occurred in the archipelago.
Bicentennial Tambora eruption will fall in April 2015. Grand event is being prepared, including the exhibition sites are found around the mountain tersebut.Di them, remnants of ancient civilizations and the framework of two adults Tambora ash buried at a depth of 3 meters. Allegedly, it is the remains of a tragic kingdom of Tambora 'preserved' by the impact of the massive eruption of Tambora itu.Penemuan make the site has in common with the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD century. Tambora civilization as the Pompeii of the East then.

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