Bali Dance History
Balinese dance is fun and Balinese dance is an organic part of community supporters and disposition of its people is reflected in the dance. (I Made Bandem, 1983). According to the structure of society, the art of Balinese dance can be divided into 3 (three) periods, namely:
1. Period of Primitive Society (Pre-Hindu) (20,000 BC-400 AD)
2. Society Feudal Period (400 AD-1945)
3. Period of modern society (since 1945)
Primitive Society (Pre-Hindu)
At the time of pre-Hindu people's lives in Bali is affected by the surrounding natural conditions. Natural rhythm of the rhythm of their lives. Meraka dance imitating the motions of the surrounding nature like the sound waves, wind blown trees, animal movements and so forth. Forms of motion of this kind are still preserved in Balinese dance. In this day and age people do not just rely on nature, but they also devote his life to the life sepiritual. Their belief in Animism and Totemism lead their dances are full of devotion, berunsurkan Trance (kerawuhan), in the presentation and serves as a repellent reinforcements. One of the few forms of Balinese dance that originated in Hindu culture is the Pre-hyang.
In the feudal society characterized by the development of the Balinese dance elements of Hindu culture. Hindu influences retreat went very slowly. Beginning in the seventh century in the reign of UGRA sena in Bali. In the X century occurred the marriage of King Udayana with Mahendradatta, queen of eastern Java that is born king of perkawianan Airlangga who later became king in East Java. Since it happened very close relationship between Java and Bali. Balinese culture is based on ancestor worship (animism and totemism) mixed with Hinduism and Buddhism which eventually became Hindu culture as we see now the oldest records that mention of the manifold of dance found in Central Java is a stone inscribed jaha which dates to 840 AD . In the feudal era of dance developed in the palace, also developed in the community. This is due to the interest of religion was never absent from the dance and music.
In the modern society that began in the Republic of Indonesia's independence in 1945, patromisasi of the kingdoms in feudal times began to decrease. At this time many new creations were created, although it is still based on new creations to traditional values, ie, just change the composition and interpretation of the song into motion.
Definition of Dance
Dance is an expression of human feelings expressed by the human body movements. Of meaning is quite clear that the essence of dance is movement. In this regard the Indonesian general dictionary book stated that: "Dance is the movement of the body (hands, etc.) is rhythmic and usually accompanied by the sounds (are like music, gamelan)". Poerwadarminta, (1976: 1020). Motions of human body parts are arranged in harmony with the rhythm of the music and have a purpose. Later in the book of dance education is mentioned that "the art of dance is an expression of value-niliai beauty and greatness through motion and attitude". (Ward, 1990:8)
From the above description it can be concluded that the reference to the art of dance in the title of this thesis is the expression of the human spirit are realized through the whole motion of the body beautiful. The motion was laid out by rhythmic counterpoint in accordance with the epitome of character and theme dance.
Basic - Basic Dance Bali
Outline the basics of Balinese dance is divided into 3 parts: Agem, Away, and Tangkep. Djayus the basic theory states Dancing dance Bali Bali is Agem, Away, and Tangkep. As a clearer picture of the basic aspects of Balinese dance is described as follows:
Agem is, the attitude of the subject which contains a specific intent which is a main motion that does not change from one attitude to the attitude of the principal subjects lain.Agem consists of a variety of forms, for example, mungkah mace, ngerajasinga, pat hem, ngeteg-pinggel, and so lain.Tandang is how to move a motion that another principal subject movement, so it becomes a series of continuous motion. Kit consists of: Abah is the displacement motion of the foot in dance composition, and countered the development of the hand as luknagasatru, nerudut and ngelimat.Tangkep expression that exudes inspiration is dance that is an expression that arise through muka.Tangkep light is composed of several kinds, for example: bullets , which is incredible sense of joy that is realized with a straight face; encahcerunggu, the change of an expression kemimik others, and maniscerungu, is smiling while mendelikan eye. It is a very decisive Tangkep maturity without the inspiration of dance, dance does not seem hidup.Demikianlah agem, tangkep away and is a unity that can not be separated - separated. Terms - the terms of perfection of a dance is included in it.
These three factors mentioned above have the meaning of unity between wiraga, wirasa and wirama for the perfection of Balinese dance.
Classification of Balinese Dance
Balinese dance is based on its type can be classified into four, namely: 1) the type of dance according to their function, 2) according to the type of dance choreography, 3) the type of dance in the manner of presentation, 4) types of dance by theme or content.
* Type of Dance According to Function
1. Wali dance / sacred (religious dance), dance serves as a complement to implementing the religious ceremonies performed in Pretend and places that have something to do with the religious ceremony, as executors of religious ceremonies and do not use the play upakara example Rejang dance, dance Pendet.
2. Bebali dance / ceremonial dance, dance is an art that serves as a companion ceremony / Pretend upakara in or out of the temple is generally put on the play, for example, Dance Drama, Mask, Arja.
3. Balinese dance-healers (secular dance), is a dance that has all the basic elements of dance and dance from the sublime art that is not classified as dance or dance bebali guardian has the function as well as serious art and entertainment art. For example, the Legong Kraton dance, dance Joged (Bandem, 1991), while the knowledge of dance instruction book states that according to the function of dance is divided into three, namely:
1. Temple Dance (Dance Wali), at first in a series of ceremonies in the Temple Dance Ceremony is an integral part of the chronology of the ceremonies. This dance is usually held on a work (big piodalan at Temple). This dance is performed after the beginning of the end of the ceremony with the rhythmic movements of the simbiolis although arguably not yet fully dancing but it leads to other forms of dance should be implemented in a pure and consistent. For example: Dance Rejang, and Pendet.
2. Ritual Dance (Dance bebali), dance is closely associated with traditional ceremonies are expected in life and life safety. For example: line dance, Trance Dance, Barong Dance.
3. Dance Entertainment (association), in accordance with its function, this dance is a means to express his joy, joy, and for the association. In general, these dances in Bali danced by women, but some are danced by men, but portray the role of women. Spark of excitement is the interaction between men and women. For example: Joged tube, and Dance Leko.
In the above description it can be concluded that according to the function of dance is divided into three, namely: Dance Guardian is the only sacred dance danced at the holy places, Dance bebali, who still has something to do with temple ceremonies both in and outside the temple that has been put on the play , Balinese dance-healers, dance was an element of art and entertainment.
According to the type of Dance Choreography (Creator / Composers)
Artika Dance Education in his state, according to the types of dance choreography can be divided into three, namely:
1. Folk, is a dance that has experienced the development of primitive societies to the present. This dance is very simple and not so heed the norms of beauty and form of the standard. In the days of primitive society was a dance sacred dances containing magic. Movements of the dance is very simple because the importance is the belief that lies behind the dance., For example, ask for rain dance, dance to influence the game. Dance in Indonesia which is based primitives such as Dance Trance Dance, Barong Dance, and so forth. While the phrase is still the life of the people in general are happy dance or social dances / social dance Joged example.
2. Classical Dance, is dance originally evolved among the King and nobles who have achieved high artistic crystallization that has traditional values. Classical dance is a dance palace maintained in the kings and nobles who had received excellent care there is going to standardize even within the choreography.
3. New Creative Dance, is dance that has been given a new claim patterns, no longer tied to the patterns that have been there and want more freedom in terms of expression despite the frequent movement of tradition smell.
Method according to type of dance presentation is
Djayus (1979:11) states the type of dance presentation is divided by 3 is:
1. Singles Dance, is dance danced by one man.
2. Dance duet, a dance that is danced by two people.
3. Mass dance, the dance is danced by many people.
While Artika states for the presentation of dance there are three, namely:
1. Single dance, dance performances are the only danced by a dancer.
2. Dance in pairs / dance duo, is a dance performed by the two roles, the roles between each other or complement each other there is a close connection in a kind of choreography both in pairs and pairs are not similar.
3. Dance Group / Bulk, this is a dance drama, also called taro as described in addition to many people also carry a complete or partial story.
In the above description it can be concluded that the presentation of dance can be divided according to three, namely: 1) Single Dance (sung one) 2) Pair Dance (sung by two roles, where roles are complementary to each other), 3) Dance dance Bulk sung by many people, can also carry a complete story or part of the so-called drama of dance.
According to the types of Dance How to Fill / theme
Bandem (1983:22) states the type of dance by content can be divided by 4 is:
1. Panthomin dance, that dance that mimicked the movements of objects that are beyond human beings.
2. Erotic dance is a dance that contain content that is erotic or romance.
3. Heroic Dance / Dance Hero, which has a dance background aversion to suffering (Barong Dance) and War dance (Dance Line).
4. Dance is a dance drama that brings a story there's usually a dialogue and there is no use dialog.